By Hello everyone, I'm cabbage! | 30 November 2019 | 0 Comments

How many allergens do you know in cosmetics?

Hello everyone, I'm cabbage!

Today, cabbage comes to pick up the allergens in cosmetics with everyone. Because of the different skin type, living environment, working environment and personal living and eating habits, everyone has different sensitivity to cosmetics.

And the allergens in cosmetics are the most concerned by the "ingredient party" and "sensitive muscle" people. Do you know how allergens in cosmetics cause allergies? What are the allergens in cosmetics?

First, let's look at the types of allergies caused by cosmetics.

Allergy caused by cosmetics is called cosmetic dermatitis in medicine and cosmetic contact dermatitis in national standard. There are mainly two types.

One is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), which is caused by immune response (type IV allergy). This kind of allergic reaction is relatively slow and has a certain incubation period. Generally, it does not occur after the first contact. After 1-2 weeks, if the same allergen is contacted again, the allergic phenomenon will appear. The allergens that cause ACD are mostly low molecular weight substances, usually hapten (refers to small molecules with reactivity but no immunogenicity, when combined with proteins into polymer complexes, they become complete antigens).

The other is irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). After one or more times of skin contact with allergens, allergic reactions such as tingling, redness, erythema and desquamation will occur. The lesions of ICD can be divided into two types: acute and subacute. The acute allergic reaction is mainly caused by contact with strong irritants (such as acid, alkali, etc.), and the strong reaction occurs again in the endothelium in a short time. The subacute allergic reaction is the allergic reaction of the skin after repeated use, usually the symptoms of rubella, pruritus, etc.

The safety test of cosmetics, including in vitro biochemical test and human body patch test, most cosmetics are suitable for different skin types to ensure the safety of products, and the content of its irritant ingredients is low. Therefore, the allergic reactions in cosmetics are mostly subacute allergic reactions. When the amount of some cosmetics is high, the skin sensitive people will have acute allergic reactions and Allergic contact dermatitis and other symptoms.

What are allergens in cosmetics?

From the analysis of cosmetic ingredients, the high sensitizing coefficient is preservative, synthetic perfume flavor, emulsifier, grease, pigment and so on. In addition, polyols and some functional ingredients commonly used in cosmetics may also cause sensitization to different degrees at different doses.

1. Preservative
Phenols: phenoxyethanol is the common phenolic preservative in cosmetics. Phenoxyethanol has low sensitization, but it will produce a burning sensation when applied to the skin. When it is added in a large amount or in some sensitive muscle groups, it will also produce a tingling sensation.

P-hydroxybenzoate: p-hydroxybenzoate preservatives are also known as Nipagin Esters. Nipagin Esters are relatively weak allergens, which usually cause allergic reactions when used on damaged skin.

Formaldehyde releaser preservative: it is a kind of substitute of formaldehyde with relatively high efficacy and safety. Common preservatives include dmdm-hydantoin, quaternary ammonium salt-15, imidazolidinylurea and bisimidazolidinylurea. This kind of preservative is relatively irritant and should be avoided as far as possible in sensitive muscle population.

Isothiazolinone: isothiazolinone is mainly composed of methyl chloroisothiazolinone and methyl isothiazolinone. This kind of preservative is highly irritant and can only be used in wash off formula, such as shampoo, shampoo and other cosmetics. People with sensitive skin quality should avoid using such preservatives as much as possible when purchasing shampoo, shampoo, facial cleanser and other cleansing cosmetics.

Polyols in the cosmetic matrix, such as glycerin, butanediol, hexanediol, etc., also have a certain antiseptic effect. They are often used to mix with preservatives, so as to reduce the dosage of preservatives and reduce the risk of irritation and sensitization. However, when the amount of polyols is large, it will cause skin burning.

Preservatives can inhibit bacteria and microorganisms in cosmetics and ensure the quality of cosmetics. Therefore, it is not allowed to pursue soothing and completely deny the role of preservatives in cosmetics.

Nowadays, many cosmetics that claim no preservative are not really preservative free. Most of them just don't add ingredients classified as preservatives in the cosmetics list. They are replaced by polyols and other materials with antiseptic and bacteriostatic effects. As mentioned above, too much polyols can also cause skin burning and even allergic reactions.

2, flavors and fragrances
At present, there are more than 3000 kinds of spices used in cosmetics, and at least 35% of the cosmetics allergies are caused by spices.

It should be noted that some cosmetic products are labeled as "fragrance free", "hypoallergenic" or even "fragrance free". In fact, there are potential flavor components.

In particular, some cosmetics containing plant extracts, such as lemon olein, a component of tea tree oil, may cause allergic reactions.

Commonly used flavors are cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, citral, eugenol and so on.

Cinnamaldehyde: the natural cinnamaldehyde has high cost and many impurities, so the cinnamaldehyde used in cosmetics is mostly synthetic. Its sensitization rate is low within the use limit, and it has the function of bacteriostasis and antisepsis.

Citral, also known as vanillin, can be used to make floral and lemon flavors. Citral has the risk of causing allergic reactions, but the risk is low within the specified amount.

Peru balsam: as a fixative, it is added to many cosmetic flavors. Its composition is complex. It has not been completely identified. Its main components include benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate.


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